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Building Smart Cities : GIS Tools and Techniques - Nagpur


Post #: A38342728
Posted on: 11 September
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Smart Cities are knowledge-based cities that have extra ordinary capabilities to be self-aware that functions 24×7 in real time to provide satisfactory way of life to its citizens. They are easy on public delivery of services and provide comfortable mobility to its citizens. Smart cities conserve energy, care for the environment and other natural resources and provide greener environment to its citizens along with vibrant urban economy for its citizens to emerge as an energetic, self-sustained communities.

GIS plays an important role in transforming a city into a smart city. Our last two blogs Smart City and Data organization and Building Smarter Utilities using GIS has clearly emphasized the importance of GIS in smart city infrastructure. Continuing this series based on smart city and GIS, this blog attempts to showcase some of the GIS tools that can make the dream of smart city come true.   


Various GIS tools for collecting location based Information

Geographical Information Systems or GIS uses various tools for collecting location-enriched information beyond maps. Over the period GIS has emerged from just being a map-based tool to the use of highly advanced instruments for collecting land-based information. This has brought a transformation in the way governments deploy e-Governance systems that highly rely on GIS.
Here we discuss some key tools used for capturing data for GIS.


·         LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging)


Laser Imaging Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), also known as ALS (Airborne Laser Scanning) was first developed in 1960 by Hughes Aircraft Inc. It is a remote sensing technology that measures distance by illuminating a target with a laser and analyzing the reflected light. While conventional GIS topographical mapping (Total Station/GPS) involves single data point recording, LiDAR uses cloud of data points, thereby increasing the accuracy of the data being collected. Further, LiDAR captures a continuous stream of data, thus making the speed of collection of data another major advantage of LiDAR over conventional mapping techniques.

LiDAR is very useful for urban planning in smart cities. With the help of it, an accurate topography of land can be mapped and proper designing and planning for city can be executed. It is very useful in execution of e-governance based urban planning tools like Building Information Modeling, Auto Building Plan Approval etc. where land infrastructure and utility mapping is vital for implementation.


·         GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar)

Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a research tool that has many different applications that answer all sorts of questions ranging from the amount of reinforced steel in a bridge to the depth until the water table. GPR can be a much more cost effective and less invasive process than other traditional methods for any underground exploration such as trenching. GPR uses electromagnetic frequencies ranging from 25- 1000 MHz that are sent from a transmitter into the ground that reflects to a receiver unit to create a reflection profile showing the internal stratigraphy of the imaged area. Results of GPR profiles, enhanced using the GPR unit’s software, must be interpreted accurately in order to properly assess any feature being studied. Background knowledge of the study area is also of critical importance to final interpretation. While GPR is a great tool, it does not come without its downfalls. Ground composition, electromagnetic noise in the area, depth of a feature, and resolution that determines the effectiveness of GPR profiling.

GPR has wide range applications in Smart Cities. It can be widely used to identify faults in underground water and power network and address them with great accuracy with minimum efforts and time. GPR can provide precise and reliable information about the presence location and depth of these utilities and other buried infrastructure for any construction work to be carried out and can prevent damage to this infrastructure and personnel working. It can also be used to evaluate roads and buildings for any cracks, cavity and voids that will provide better safety for citizens.

·         BIM (Building Information Modeling)

BIM is an intelligent model-based process that provides insights to help plan, design, construct, and manage buildings and infrastructure. Building information Modeling (BIM) is a new way of approaching the design and documentation of building projects. BIM stands for:

·         Building – the entire lifecycle of a building is considered (design/build/operations)

·         Information – all information about a building and its lifecycle is included

·         Modeling – defining and simulating a building, its delivery, and operation using integrated tools

BIM brings together all of the information about every component of a building, in one place. It makes it possible for anyone to access that information for any purpose, e.g. to integrate different aspects of the design more effectively. In this way, the risk of mistakes or discrepancies is reduced and abortive costs minimized.

BIM data can be used to illustrate the entire building’s lifecycle, from inception and design to demolition and materials reuse. Spaces, systems, products and sequences can be shown in relative scale to each other and in turn, relative to the entire project. By signaling conflict detection BIM prevents errors creeping in at various stages of development/construction.

BIM Models manages not just graphics, but also informs to automatically generate drawings and reports, analysis, simulate schedules and more ultimately enables the building team to make better-informed decisions.

BIM supports a distributed team that can effectively share information throughout the building lifecycle, thus eliminating data quality issues.

With the advent of the concept of smart cities the future of the construction industry is going digital and BIM is the future of digitization in design and long term facility management. It is driven by technology with clear processes and is implementing change across all industries. With exceeding use of technology, BIM will become even more pronounced than it is in current projects. In smart cities, e-governance and digitization play a lead role, while BIM leads in the construction industry.


·         Automated Building Plan Approval

·         E-governance is a major pillar in smart cities and keeping this in mind this tool helps to introduce e-governance in building plan approvals. It is a tool that is designed for smooth processing of building plan approvals to facilitate the e-Governance in land administration. Today, most plan applications & drawing plans are submitted in paper format that are then processed and scrutinized manually. This manual process is cumbersome and takes lots of effort and time of the officials and citizens.

·         Automated Building Plan Approval System uses GIS based mapping for approval where paperless application of plans and drawings can be submitted. Every approval and scrutiny is done online, based on GIS based data mapping. This system makes the process more transparent, fast and simplified saving cost, time and efforts of citizens.


·        Conclusion

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is more than just map displays. For urban development and its sustainability, GIS technology has the potential and ability to be used to “drive planning support systems, decision-making frameworks incorporating a combination of computer and information technology, urban growth models and computer-based visualization techniques to support community-based planning”. Visualization is an integral component in GIS technology and application. The tools mentioned in the article above help to visualize and create more efficient systems to build a smarter city.


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Building Smart Cities : GIS Tools and Techniques - Nagpur, India - Free Classifieds - Muamat

Building Smart Cities : GIS Tools and Techniques - Nagpur, India - Free Classifieds - Muamat

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